Go and tell my servant David, Thus saith the Lord, Shalt thou build me an house for me to dwell in? …Moreover I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as beforetime,
And as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel, and have caused thee to rest from all thine enemies. Also the Lord telleth thee that he will make thee an house. And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.
He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever. I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: But my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee. And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.( 2 Samuel 7:5-16)
King David wanted to build a temple for the LORD. Even as a young shepherd boy it had pained him that the Ark sat at the house of Obed Edom, and didn’t rest in the tabernacle of Moses which had been destroyed by the Philistines at the second battle of Aphek.
As the first great act of his kingdom, David moved the Ark to Jerusalem and set up a tent of worship there. But David wanted more for the Ark, so he amassed a personal fortune and told Nathan the prophet that He wanted to build a house for God.
God responded to Nathan, that David wasn’t chosen to build God’s house, but God would build a ‘house’ (Dynasty) for David, which would last forever. David’s seed, after Him, would build the house of the LORD, and in David’s seed, God would establish the Kingdom forever!
Furthermore the covenant used adoption language to describe David’s Son. The seed of David would be the Son of God.Adam was the original son of God, after him Israel as a nation was considered the Son of God.
From here on, God would deal with Israel and the rest of humanity itself through the seed of David, the Son of God. This is part of the meaning of Psalm 2,
Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel. Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him.(Psalm 2:6-11)
The continuity with the Abrahamic covenant is obvious, the LORD promised Abraham a great name, as He did David, a land for the people of Israel, and “Rest” from their enemies. The seed the woman in Genesis 3 is also the seed of Abraham, and the Seed of David. David will never lack a descendant on the throne, the Son of God.
The Lord hath sworn in truth unto David; he will not turn from it; Of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne. If thy children will keep my covenant and my testimony that I shall teach them, their children shall also sit upon thy throne for evermore. For the Lord hath chosen Zion; he hath desired it for his habitation.(Psalm 132:11-13)
Notice that the Davidic covenant is both conditional and unconditional. God told David his seed would rule, but if they should commit iniquity, God would chastise them, but his mercy would never depart from the house of David, and the Kingdom would endure forever.
David’s son Solomon built the temple, partially fulfilling the prophecy, but the Temple(House) that Solomon built didn’t last forever. David’s other descendants were Kings of Judah, some of them excellent and others miserable, but the line of David was cut off, Zedekiah, was captured by the Babylonians, his children slain before his eyes, and his eyes burned out of their sockets, before he was carried away into Babylonian captivity.
It seemed that the “Tree of David” was now a stump.
But God told David, that he would never lack a seed to rule on the throne of the Kingdom.
Isaiah prophesied in the days of one of the worst of the sons of David, King Mannaseh, who worshipped Moloch, defiled the temple, and persecuted and killed prophets.The Prophet saw the Davidic dynasty as a stump, cut off and seemingly dead, the promise seemingly unfulfilled. But then he saw a shoot spring forth, which turned into a branch.
And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots: And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord; And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord: and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears: But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth: with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.(Isaiah 11:1-5)
Centuries later the Angels would announce to a virgin girl in Nazareth and to poor Shepherds keeping their flocks at night, That God had remembered his covenant with David,
And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.(Luke 1:31-33)
And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.
For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.(Luke 2:9-12)